Clouded agaric – identification, distribution, edibility

clouded agaric study

Clouded agaric, clouded funnel – Clitocybe nebularis (I have also seen it listed as Lepista nebularis)

  • Edibility  2/5 – While some people eat and enjoy this mushroom (well cooked), it can cause gastric upsets in some people. Please read the linked articles and comments below.
  • Identification 3/5 – See below. Possible confusion with livid pinkgill (entoloma sinuatum) which is highly poisonous
  • Distribution    4/5 – common and highly gregarious, often forming huge rings
  • Season October-December
  • Habitat: Under almost any tree type, growing on fallen leaf/needle litter or rich soil. I have also found it growing in grass well removed from the nearest tree.

Key features: Cap pale to ash grey, fleshy, dry, inrolled at the margin on young specimens which tend to be dome shaped. Older caps flat and broad up to 15cm. Gills white to cream, decurrent (descending down the stem), easily detatchable, spores white-cream. Stipe solid, broader at the base. The general jizz (as bird watchers call it) of this mushroom is grey, solid, robust, and gregarious – especially in large, well-formed rings.

perfect mushroom ring

This is one of those awkward mushrooms that doesn’t agree with everyone. Roger Phillips reports that  it is “Said to be edible, but known to cause gastric upsets in many people“. As is so often the case with saprophytic fungi, the clouded agaric may have markedly different composition depending on which substrate it is growing on. This may further complicate uncertainties around personal tolerances.

As I discuss in more detail in this post on The Spectrum of Edibility, “edibility” is a much more complicated concept than we tend to appreciate. This paper on clouded agaric lists its potentially beneficial properties (albeit based only on testing on mice), while this paper goes into some detail on its potentially harmful properties. I suggest you read both before deciding whether this is a mushroom you might wish to eat.

I have personally eaten this mushroom on several occasions and enjoyed, after thorough cooking, its sweet yet sharp flavour which works particularly well with fish and pickles well too. Having only recently come across the second paper linked above, I am now more circumspect about eating clouded agaric. If you choose to eat it, i’d now recommend boiling in water then discarding the water before cooking

Discussions of toxicity aside, this also appears to be one of those foods that actually tastes different to different people – some find it rank, despite not getting any adverse symptoms.

Huge numbers of clouded agaric can be lurking around any tree or bend in the road. Bagless, I had to improvise with this lot and stuff them into my jacket.

Don’t be too scared of the superficially similar but much rarer livid pinkgill which has pink spores, ascending gills and a floury odour.

If you do choose to eat clouded agaric, please leave a comment below to let me know how you got on with it.

clouded agaric





  • Oliver Watts says:

    Hello. I live in France and we found these mushrooms at the weekend. We were accompanied (fortunately) by a knowledgeable friend who identified them as clouded agaric. We tasted a small amount, simply fried in butter, and they were delicious. Quite a strong flavour that is often described as ‘fungal’ over here. They smell nice too when they’re raw but I can’t describe any of the complexities of the aroma as I don’t have the mushroom vocabulary!

    • mark says:

      Hi Oliver, Glad you enjoyed them! Really abundant over here yet so many people ignore them.

      • Andrew Bretscher says:

        I found some of these fungi growing in groups of 8 – 10 among grass, near beech tree and conifer, West Midlands, UK.
        In the grass, and after cutting, these mushrooms are white-grey, somewhat pallid, a cloud-coloured mushroom. In shape and size, they are similar to a Blewit.
        Smell: sweet, pleasant; rather like a creamy French cheese, such as Camembert.
        Edibility Test: Edible – Good. When well cooked, fried in butter, salt and black pepper, the taste is like that of a Wood Blewit. Has a mildly hot, appley flavour. The mushrooms I cooked did have one or two maggots, ie. they were being eaten by these. In the night following eating, when sleeping, I experienced some mild burping. Only this to report in the first day following ingestion.

  • Alice Vinyard says:

    There are a lot of these mushroom in the nearby nature reserve along with a lot of other species. I always a bit concern if I am the group of the people that may be affected by it. I braved myself today to cook and eat some today and find them quite delicious. And I have to say that my tummy seems to agree with them so far.

  • Robin says:

    I noticed these huge mushrooms next to our driveway last year, but didn’t research them. This year, I researched the heck out of them, and am confident this is the mushroom. I tried a few small bites cooked in butter last night. They were delicious. No ill effects. You mentioned pickling them. I think I will try that. There are so many and they are so meaty, I am delighted that I can eat them! Thank you for this very informative blog. If you have pickling hints, I would appreciate them.

    • mark says:

      Great stuff Robin, glad you enjoyed them. I saute, rinse in hot water (to remove oil/butter) and jar in vinegar with spices infused to taste. I’m sure you will access better directions online, but the best thing is to play about a bit and see what works for you!

  • Gerard Kennedy says:

    Inspired by this website I finally bit the bullet today. Subtle and gorgeous. I’m definitely a convert. Three hours later and no gastroirritant problems. We’re all good. These guys are in Perthshire mixed woodland. No really discernible rings. More kind of groups. There are Wood Blewits nearby, I’m delighted to report. The Parasols are still hiding.

  • Steve T says:

    Hi all,
    Given the welcome, but peculiar, shift in our weather, one of our best foraging tools namely the season, has become less reliable. I am sure we all can think of unseasonal examples, I myself am collecting bitter cress for the fourth times this year, in mid December! So without wanting to cast a cloud over enthusiasm for fungi, please be aware that there are several very poisonous mushrooms of this general shape and colour. Some of these undesirables may well produce fruiting bodies outside their expected `season`. I don’t eat any white or cream coloured mushroom other than puffballs, inkcaps and hedgehog’s which have unmistakable features.
    I should add that I generally advise spore printing to confirm identification, but often ignore the advise myself!!
    Happy hunting, Steve

    • mark says:

      Hi Steve,
      Not sure where you are – interesting to hear about weather shifts. In W Scotland we generally experience “autumn” for at least 6 months of the year … wet and mild. I notice cyclical variations among many species, not always obviously related to weather patterns.
      Bitter cress is an all-year round crop hereabouts and i’m lucky enough to have a great patch of cardamine raphanifolia that tastes great 10 months of the year.
      I’m glad to hear you only harvest within your identification “comfort zone” – of course nobody should eat anything that they are not 100% sure of. This is no reason not to explore new species though. Harvesting wild food becomes less sustainable when people restrict themselves to only a few well known varieties. And as noted in the post – they will be missing out on some potentially delicious stuff.
      I don’t get your point about seasonal climatic variation affecting safety. Anyone harvesting wild mushrooms should be positively identifying everything they plan to eat at any time of year – with extra care if they don’t seem “seasonally appropriate”.
      I use spore printing to aid identification, seldom to confirm it, but it is certainly a good starting point for narrowing down to genus.
      Happy hunting,

    • Alina says:

      Hi Steve.
      I found a lot of these in the Hamspead Heath forested area of the park, so far I have tried a couple of pieces boiled and rinsed, thry are quite sweetly flavoured and delicious. I’m planning to pickle some, thank you for mentioning it.
      Best Regards ☺️

  • Frank says:

    Well I am so happy I came across this page of yours Mark, I was in the woods with my son today making a little clearing to camp in future, I normally find Porcini & the occasional peppery boletes if I am lucky, but along with my usual 2 I discovered these & brought a couple of specimens home to I.D & after looking through all 4 of my mushroom books I had already decided after correctly identifying them to actually discard them, as the books all said to avoid due to possible gastric problems, but my hunch of them being a possible candidate for the table had me search online further, as I do as already said eat the peppery boletes which most books say the same about & they are a great eating mushroom IMO, so after reading your page & the comments, I fried a few slithers up with some butter & a little salt, boy am I glad I did, the flavour & texture are excellent & one I am very happy to add to my list of edibles, thank you so much for taking your time to write this little page on them Mark, most appreciated, thankfully I have a pretty much cast iron constitution, so with luck I will not have any gastric issues with them, but I will report back if I do have any issues. delighted to find something else edible here as I am in what is regarded as one of the worst places for foraging in the UK Just one small question – you say above to avoid the smaller specimens – may I ask why??

    • mark says:

      Hi Frank,
      Great stuff, so glad you have a new item in your wild larder.
      Information like that you have shared here is really useful for building up an “edibility profile” of lesser-eaten species. Most guide books tend to regurgitate (no pun intended!) the information in earlier books, which may well be based on some very subjective evidence back in the mists of time. Up-to-date reports from mindful foragers who know what they are doing are invaluable.
      I have to be honest, i’m not sure why I wrote “avoid young specimens”… I’m guessing this is based on them possibly being harder to identify and digest at that stage, but i’m not sure I have any evidence for this! Hmmm… must be getting old!
      You may also like this blog on “The Spectrum of Edibility”:

  • Emma Andreou says:

    I am cooking them right now!)

    • Sacha says:

      Hi Mark I was come across this Clouded Agaric this month Nov, and post question to your facebook to confirm that I might mistake with a similarly to the other. But at the end I have to search it myself and also try a little for start. As two days gone by surviving from gastric now I am confident to cook them regularly.

  • Frank says:

    So sorry I did not get a reply back up sooner, was it the throws of moving home, but after finding some more today which you kindly confirmed on facebook via PM it made me remember I should have come back to check on hear a long time back, the ones I found today were in a totally different environment, much smaller & of a much different colour to what I have previously found, more brown & smaller compared to what I have normally associated being a clouded agaric, they were right on a bluff between two hill’s overlooking a sheer cliff drop right on the coast, I actually almost walked straight by them, but something stopped me & I took a few home to try to ID, just cooked some up & remembered what I have been missing as found not a one last year.

    I have to say if you have never tried these, then you are missing out on a real hidden treasure, now if only those dam Cep’s would also show up, though already getting late for them.

  • Veronika says:

    Greetings from the Czech Republic! This is one of my favourite species of mushroom, especially since it tend to be abundant even when there is not much else some years. The general recommendation in this country as far as Clitocybe nebularis is concerned is if you find its highly distinctive smell pleasant, you can probably eat them safely. If they smell offensive to you, you are better off not eating them, as some people are allergic to them. I personally love them, and they agree with me. Some family members find the smell unpleasant and they reported mild stomach trouble after eating them, so I guess it works. I brought a big basket of them yesterday, and tried pickling the young ones in vinegar for the first time – really delicious, with very pleasant texture.

  • Andras says:

    Hello from Estonia, a few quick words of apreciation for your site. Together with Wood blewits this is the most frequent species in the woods right now, have tried them repeatedly and can confirm what other posters say, they are really delicious and no adverse effects. Will have them agan tonight, found a good patch of fresh growth in a small gully that cuts accross the neighborng patch of forest.

  • Carol says:

    Picked four yesterday and ate for lunch, they are delicious, cooked in butter a shake of Maggi, well the Polish version of Maggi. As most Brits are wary of any wild fungi, I will probably enjoy all to myself, although when I do cook any of my foraged fungi and a male friend is around, they cannot resist trying, even one with ibs. The area I live is Hampshire/Berkshire borders
    this is the first time I picked up the courage to do so, after Roger Phillips warning. What a super discovery, thanks another edible one, no problem with digesting. So far this year, chanterelles, horn of plenty and amethyst deceiver, boletus poor and scarce not worth gathering, which is a worry. I am a Brit, get fed up of I prefer to buy mine from Sainsbury’s

  • Rory says:

    I’ve been ‘eyeing up’ a small troop of Clouded Agarics for two days and I fried a couple in butter today: delicious! Much tastier than the Grisettes that accompanied them on my plate.
    There are lots coming up on the Sussex Downs where I live so I’ll be making the most of them in November.
    No gastric issues at all with me, Rory

    • Henrietta Fernandez says:

      Also found a load on the Downs today- although am still not sure if they aren’t Lepista Lucina. Growing in rings in the grass.
      Perhaps I found both! A big ring under bracken and oak and then a very similar species in grass away from the trees in an open spot on the Downs. Confusing! I will try both types and see if I get any upset. Garlic and onions don’t agree with me so well but most mushrooms I seem to be fine with!

  • greg says:

    we had a patch of them at the edge of one of our fields in south west ireland beneath larch trees. They smelled very strongly mushroomy aromatic. I ate one and a half decent sized ones and loved them and had no ill effects whatsoever. In taste and texture they remind me of parasoles, which we also get.

  • Ben Sweet says:

    We found a big bunch of these specimens in Wimbledon in London. At first I thought it was a type of blewit. But couldn’t identify. We took a spore print and also I was 95% sure it wasn’t anything deadly, so decided to fry up a small sample. With no upset, we ended up frying up the lot with butter garlic and rosemary and they were up there with some of the nicest tasting mushrooms I’ve had. My partner and I didn’t get ill, so it’s a double thumbs up as I tend to find these often.

    I think a small test eating is a sensible idea!

    Great post. Thanks


  • Simon says:

    I picked a few of these this afternoon, and ate one a few hours ago, having decided to take the cautious approach. I feel fine, no discomfort, and it was a delicious mushroom, so planning on eating a few more tomorrow. Thanks for this page, the links are informative, as are other peoples’ experience of eating them.

  • Anita Cullen says:

    These are a really tasty mushroom to eat, but I would recommend picking the more mature fruit bodies, because they are less likely to cause any gastric problems

  • Anna says:

    Hi, two of us ate a panful of these last night, no upsets. I’d describe the taste as like eating a plate of horse mushrooms next to a person wearing floral perfume. 😀

  • Tried small amount to begin with, roasted in groundnut oil and butter, absolutely delicious mushrooms flavour, love it but still wary, any thoughts on dried?

  • Thomas says:

    Picking and eating these muchrooms since my childhood. They are very tasty, easy to identify and there are plenty in the season. Never met anyone with an actual gastric upset because of this mushroom. They are also drying well as far as I remember, but haven’t dried them lately.

  • Ruairi & Ania says:

    Similar to other commentors here, we thought at first these looked like blewits, minus the colour.

    Anyway, we were thinking we’d best not eat them after reading the whole ‘1-in-5 people report alarming gastric issues’ thing. But smelling them convinced us to at least try washing, and frying one in butter. They smell so good. And can now confirm, they taste good too. Somewhere between wild-mushroomey, meatey, nutty and cheesey when fried in salted butter.

    Now we wait.

    • Suzan says:

      And? I’m going to do the same here! They look too inviting not to try! And I typically have a strong stomach… Fingers crossed.

  • Mike Jozefiak says:

    I ate these for the first time – more in number than I could shake a stick at, here in Norfolk, near Aylsham.
    Cooked them in stews and in omlettes and found no side effects at all..quite tasty.
    I have also eaten, over the last three years, Paxillus involatus, as they were pounced upon by my Russian wife while out walking, as being good to eat, again both of us expreiencing no side effects; maybe I have a cast-iron stomach!
    However, having since read more about them, and the damage which long-term ingestion might do, I’ve decided to give them a miss; shame as there are loads appearing this year – so far the best year for all mushrooms, that I’ve ever seen! Even picked a 820 gm Boletus edulis (one of three)!

    • Mark Williams says:

      Good stuff. You are right to be extremely cautious eating brown rollrims (p.involutus) – people have from died eating them, including eminent mycologist Julius Schaffer!

  • not being knowledgeable found several pounds of cloudy clitocybe growing on a pile of shredded tree trimmings your comments have encouraged me to give em a try. have not seen them before here in north east Ohio hopefully they’ll be back next

  • Esther says:

    Hi, I found some of these mushrooms yesterday in Oak woods, first I smelled it and I really like the smell, I thought it might be some kind of blewits so I picked them.
    I tried a small amount first to consume and this mushroom was surprisingly delicious, today I make the other amount for breakfast, it was a good decision to take them home

  • Catalin says:

    Hi, I found very young specimens of this mushroom in oak wood and decided to cook them with a bit of butter, olive oil, garlic, salt and pepper. Very nice consistency, and the floury-mushroomy taste. However, 9 hours after I started vomiting’s and had diarrhea, loss of energy and cold sweats, very mild tummy ache.
    Decide wisely when cooking this

  • Jo says:

    Picked these today in a beech forest in Ireland. Excellent simply fried up with butter and garlic. We also made soup with them as we had a large haul and it is really tasty !

  • Sarah says:

    Brought three of these home yesterday from a mixed woodland (predominantly podzoly soil but plenty of broadleaf litter) Had a beautiful mushroom odour. Boiled them in salted water (produced a white froth when boiled) before sautéing them in butter. I used salted water because this generally helps to draw out components (osmosis). Maybe no need!? Flavour was strong and very good. Very very mild stomach cramps immediately afterward. Lasted a few hours. Might not try again, as much of a shame as it is. The flavor was so good.

    • Sarah says:

      Also wanted to note, the fact the the worms and maggots don’t make a feast of them makes me suspect them a little bit also.

      • Mark Williams says:

        They do get devoured by gnat and fly larvae in my area. This bears no relation to human edibility though – some of our finest edibles are insect resistant – see chanterelles and hedgehog mushrooms. This is discussed in detail here

  • Erwin Nauta says:

    I cooked them for 20 minutes.
    Sturdy mushroom when young.
    I ate one to check if it would sit well in my stomach.
    No problems with getting sick but the flavour does nothing for me on its own.
    Might try it cooked in butter and adding flavour to it and also give it a go putting it in the jar.

  • Marnie says:

    I collected a bunch of these on Monday but took a while to be sure of their ID. I decided to give one small mushroom a go this evening. Sautéed in butter it tasted delicious but will have to wait 24 hours to see how my body reacts before I cook any more. Fingers crossed!

  • Akos says:

    Hi, me and my family have been eating this for years. I almost crapped myself today after gathering 3 baskets worth when i saw online that they are poisonous, then a little researched shed light on the issue. I got so upset that they rank this as a poisonous mushroom wheb they can cause some cramps and fast poop in some people.

    I would personally rank them as possible to cause allergic reaction or whatever. Anyway, rant over. They are tasy and we eat them yearly. We do boil them before cooking, boiling water + add mushroom+ boil for another 15-20 mins- take em out and decide to freeze or use soon. Love the taste and texture

  • Jacqui says:

    I tried these for the first time yesterday, first parboiled and drained then fried in butter. I was happy but my husband stopped after a couple of pieces and then said his stomach hurt after about 10 minutes. I found them tasty, like a blewit. We will not be eating these as a family and I doubt I’ll feed them to guests, if we ever have guests again…

  • Farah Imran says:

    Hi, I tried these after reading your blog and relevant information in Geoff Dann’s book. I found them to be delicious! I used young firm specimens. First time I fried thin slices in butter until golden and they were superb! Next time, I added them to a wild mushroom soup. The whole family enjoyed them thoroughly and I’m glad to report that we suffered no ill effects whatsoever. I will boil them and discard water in future (forgot before now).

  • Joey says:

    Found some of these yesterday and cooked them up tonight. I had heard that they might react badly with alcohol 48 hours before or after eating. I figured it’s a good excuse to stay off the booze. Quite delicious, eaten 40 hours After alcohol. 3 hours After eating and Absolutely no adverse effects yet. Highly recommended although can’t Really speak for the alcohol mixing rumour.

  • Adnan says:

    Just ate 2 small pieces couple of hours ago so far so good
    It’s seems that I will go back to the wood and collect a proper amount

    Thanks for all the info here

  • Bittor Duce Zubillaga says:

    Hi, I tried this mushroom, first time, two days ago. We eat a single cap (around 12 cm) between my daughter and me.
    It’s delicious, one of the best I’ve ever tried. We haven’t had any kind of upset.

  • Devon Hart says:

    I just canned some 45 minutes in a pressure cooker, I hope I am not gonna kill myself, but I opened one jar to see how they tasted and fried them and butter. They were delicious.

  • Mirjam says:

    Tried these for the first time a few days ago – after considering it for several years and never being brave enough! They were delicious simply panfried, and thankfully no bad effects afterwards.

  • Sophie says:

    I ill-advisedly cooked and ate Clouded Agarics without testing a small piece first. I’d also consumed a fair amount of alcohol the night before. No ill effects, and they were delicious. I fried them up for 20 minutes or more in a potato hash, so they were really well cooked. Part of me wonders if the Livid Pinkgill is responsible for many of the poisonings?

  • Jimmy Liggs says:

    I have been enjoying these tasty treats over the last 48 hours for the first time after a bumper find in a small wood. I started off eating them slowly yesterday with no ill effects and have jumped in today with a BIG portion of garlic fried agarics on olive bread with hummus, black pepper, a little sea salt and all that tasty good stuff!

    The fruity smell is unusual and enticing. These pretty little tings look great cleaned up and sliced, ready for the pan. They’re bursting with flavour with a firm textured flesh and a savoury, almost cheesy-like aftertaste. I’m delighted to have found a new edible that would be awesome in so many dishes from risottos to pastas.

    Thanks for the top blog chief.
    Big up, one love to the foraging massive x

  • Autumn says:

    Have 3 times eaten these fried in salted butter. Picked in broadwood leaf litter, Derbyshire. Have not given them to my husband, who has a less strong stomach. I like them. In 12 – 24 hours they cause what i think of as non-urgent clear-out diarrhoea which is not a bad thing in my opinion. So will continue to eat them with caution, and will discard cooking juices after reading these very helpful comments. It seems no-one has said they’ve been made ill.

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